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Invasive Alien Species
Species Name : Grangea maderaspatana
Family Name : Asteraceae/Compositae
Genus : Grangea
Synonym : Artemisia maderaspatana L.
Cotula maderaspatana (L.) Willd
Origin : India
Description : Often widely branched from the base, ascending or (when young growing in dense formation) erect,.5-55 cm tall. Annual aromatic herbStem angular, densely patently white-hair, centrally hollow. Leaves helically arranged, sessile, oblong obovate or lanceolate in outline with petiole base, pinnati-lobed with 3-4 pairs of more or less circular, coarsely toothed opposite lobes, light green, 2-10 x 1-6 cm, both side with patently white hair.  Heads peduncles, 7-10 mm diameter, during anthesis accrescent, after anthesis nodding, peduncled, terminal and opposite the leaves, solitary, 1-4 cm long; outer involucral bracts oblong,acute, inner ones elliptic, rounded or obtuse, green, densely pubescent; corolla light yellow or at last greenish yellow, sparingly shorth hairy and glandular.  Achenes flattened, 2 mm long, pappus consisting of a ciliate cup.
Invaded Habitat : In desiccated pools, ditches, waste places, teak forests; often gregarious.  Rain-fed rice fields and tidal areas.
Distribution : Indonesia: in Java, Sumatra and the Lesser Sunda Islands: Sumba, Timor, Tidal areas of South Kalimantan (Belandean, Handil Manarap).
Ecology : Prefers heavy soils, from 4-4800 m alt
Picture :
References :
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol II.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  2. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Hal 81-92.
  3. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
 
Species Name : Ipomoea cairica
Family Name : Convolvulaceae
Genus : Ipomoea
Synonym : Ipomoea palmata Forssk.
Origin : Africa and Asia.
Description : A twining annual vine. Stem slender, herbaceous. Leaves alternate, ovate or orbicular, palmately cut at the base into five segments, the basal pair of segments sometimes lobed; leafstalk up to 10 cm long.  Inflorescence axillary, with stalk, white with a purplish red or pinkish tinge on both surfaces; sepals not hairy; corolla funnel shaped; oval with silky  hairs on edges.  Fruit a sub-globose capsule.  Seeds hairy.
Invaded Habitat : Running wild on roadsides, waste places, fences and railway embankments.
Distribution : In Java locally naturalized in West Java.
Ecology : Seeds are dispersed by wind or water.
Picture :
References :
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Barnes D.E. & L. G. Chan. 1990. Common Weeds of Malaysia and their control. Ancom Berhad. Persiaran Selangor. 40000 Shah Alam, Malaysia.
  3. Weber, E.  2003.  Invasive Plant Species of the World.  A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds.  CAB International Publishing.
 
Species Name : Melastoma affine
Family Name : Melastomaceae
Genus : Melastoma
Synonym : Melastoma malabathricum auct. non L.
M. polyanthum
Bl.
Origin : Asia
Description : Shrub, 0.5-4 m tall.  Young stem 4-angles to sub-cylindrical, reddish purple with rough upward pointing scales.  Leaves opposite, lance shape or oblong to ovate oblong 5-20 x 1-8 cm, 3-5 nerves with three distinct ribs, rough to touch.  Flowers several, forming clusters at the end of twigs, hypanthium7-12 mm long, scaly, reddish purple petal pinkish to light violet 1.5-3 cm long, stamen 10, five large.  Fruit berry with fleshy pericarp, seeds numerous.
Invaded Habitat : In Imperata fields and other grassy areas, secondary forests, brush-woods, plantations (tea, rubber, coccoa and oil palm), waste lands and road sides.  Sunny, wet to very dry sites, also in bamboo groves, in some place forming pure stands.  Also in upland and tidal rice fields. In East Kalimantan it is a potential weeds in shifting cultivations.
Distribution : Distributed widely throughout Indonesia.
Ecology : From 0 up to 2100 m altitude.
Picture :
References :
  1. Anonymous, 1968.  Identification of Plants on Malayan Rubber Estates : Plates 81-88, Dicotyledons.  Woody shrubs and Trees.  Planter’s Bulletin 96.  Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia.
  2. Baba, A.B. and A.B. Tambi.  1984.  Efficacy Studies of Triclopyr a Promising Herbicide for the Control of Broadleaves and Bushes in Malaysia.  Proceeding of the 1st Tropical Weed Science Conference, Hat Yai. Thailand. Vol II.
  3. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  4. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman yang  Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  5. Chee, Y.K.  1990.  Recent Weed Developments in Rubber.  Proceedings of the Symposium on Weed Management. BIOTROP Special Publication No. 38.
  6. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  7. Soekarmi, H., I.H. Utomo, J.H. Sardjono.  1992.  Inventarisasi dan Identifikasi Berbagai Jenis Gulma Dominan pada Berbagai Komoditas Andalan Perkebunan di Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  8. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  9. Sudirman, A. and K. Amypalupy.  1988.  Efikasi Triclopyr Terhadap Tanaman Penutup Tanah Leguminosa di Jalur Tanaman Karet Muda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  10. Supriyo, A., B. Prayudi, S. Zulaikha.  Pengaruh Cara pengendalian Gulma terhadap Pertumbuhan Gulma dan Hasil Kedelai pada Tanah Sulfat Masam.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  11. Syawal, Y. et al.  1992.  Gulma yang Dominan Pada Agroekosistem di Sumatera Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  12. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1991.  Melastoma affine Linn.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, Indonesia.
  13. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S., I.H. Utomo & S.S. Sastroutomo.  1984.  Tryclopyr for the control of woody weeds in young rubber plantation.  Proc.  7th Indon. Weed Sci.  Conf.
  14. Wahid, M.B. and A.H. Hasan.  1984.  Problem of Weed Control in Oil palm.  Proceedings of  the 1st Tropical Weed Science Conference, Hat Yai, Thailand.  Vol II.
 
Species Name : Mimosa pudica
Family Name : Mimosaceae
Genus : Mimosa
Synonym : Mimosa asperata Blanco
Origin : Tropical America/South America
Description : Perennial under-shrub or woody herb, erect or somewhat rambling (with support), much branched, 0.20-1.00 m tall.  Stem reddish brown or purple, with thorns and scattered prickles on internodes.  Leaves sensitive to touch, bi-pinnate, 1.5-2.5 cm long, bristly, stipules 0.5-2 mm long.  Flower pinkish, heads ovoid, 9 mm in diameter, on prickly peduncles 12-25 mm long; calyx very short, petals 4, 1-2 mm long, stamen 4.  Fruit pods attached in clusters, oblong, almost flat, pointed at tip, hairy, 1-2 cm long, 3-5 mm wide.
Invaded Habitat : M. pudica is a serious weed in nursery and young rubber plantations. It is also found at the oil palm, cacao, coconut, Morus alba and orchard plantations, vegetable fields,  waste land, road sides, dry land, rain-fed and wetland rice and pastures. It is also found at the tidal areas of Kalimantan.
Distribution : M. pudica was introduced to Indonesia for the first time in a tobacco plantation at Deli, Sumatra. It is naturalized in Java and distributed throughout Indonesia.
Ecology : The weed can stand  under considerable shading. In Java it is found at  1-1 200 m altitude. Flowers throughout the year. Seeds germinate within 2 weeks (scarification helps).
Picture :
References :
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  3. Budiman, A., S. Asikin and N. Jahab.  1992.  Aplikasi Herbisida Pratumbuh dan Jarak Tanam untuk Mengendalikan Gulma pada Kacang Tanah di Lahan Kering.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  4. Kusnanto.  1992. Efisiensi Pengendalian Gulma di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  5. van der Maesen and S. Somaatmadja (Eds).  1989.  PROSEA.  Plant Resources of South East Asia No. 1.  Pulses.  Pudoc/Prosea, Wageningen, the   Netherlands.
  6. Nasution, U.  1986.  Gulma dan Pengendaliannya di Perkebunan Karet Sumatera Utara dan Aceh.  Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan Tanjung Morawa (P4TM).
  7. Nielsen, I.C.  1992.  Flora Malesiana I.  Spermatophyta : Mimosaceae.  11 (1).  Foundation Flora Malesiana.
  8. Soejono, Endang, A. and S. Isniningsih.  1990.  Komunitas Tumbuhan Bawah di antara Tanaman Koleksi Pada Tiga Tingkat Pemeliharaan yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding 1 Konferensi HIGI X. Malang, Indonesia.
  9. Soejono, T. and S. Ronoprawiro.  1988.  Aplikasi Herbisida Fomesafen dan Fluazifop-Butyl Secara Pasca Tumbuh Pada Pertanaman Kedelai (Glycine max).  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  10. Soekarmi, H., I.H. Utomo, J.H. Sardjono.  1992.  Inventarisasi dan Identifikasi Berbagai Jenis Gulma Dominan pada Berbagai Komoditas Andalan Perkebunan di Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  11. Soerianegara, I. and R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds).  1994.  PROSEA.  Plant Resources of South East Asia No. 5 (1).  Timber trees : Major commercial timbers.  Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia and Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the   Netherlands.
  12. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  13. Suwanarak, K. S. Supasilapa, H. Hiranpradis, S. Kongsnengdao.  1988.  Efficiency of Certain Herbicides in Rambutan Orchads.  Proceedings of the Second Tropical Weed Science Conference, Thailan. Vol. 2.
  14. Syawal, Y. et al.  1992.  Gulma yang Dominan Pada Agroekosistem di Sumatera Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  Hal 43-48.
  15. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1992.  Mimosa pudica L.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, Indonesia.  2 Pages.
  16. Yasin, M., M.A. Nawir, Djamaluddin and E.O. Momuat.  1992.  Prospek Pengelolaan Gulma di Lahan Kering (Studi kasus lahan penelitian P3NT di P. Flores-NTT).  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  Hal 344-347.
 
Species Name : Momordica charantia
Family Name : Cucurbitaceae
Genus : Momordica
Synonym : Momordica indica L.
M. elegans Salisb.
M. chinensis Sprengel
Origin : Unknown
Description : Perennial herb climber, much  branched, with tendril exceeding 5.0 m on supports, or prostate.  Stem 5-angled and foul smelling.  Leaves alternate palmately 5-9 deep-lobed, diameter 5.0-8.0 cm, leafstalk 3.0-5.0 cm, cordate at the base.  Flower axillary, solitary, from leaf axill, male and female; flower stalk 5.0-7.0 cm, corolla yellow; male flower corolla deeply 5-lobed, stamen 3.  female flower, petals free, ovary inferior, stigma 2-lobed.  Fruit pendulous, 5.0-10.0 cm long, the cultivated one longer, yellowish orange with warty surface, seed numerous, covered by bright red pulp, 1.0 cm long, brownish with scarlet aril.
Invaded Habitat : Sugar cane. rubber, oil palm, cocoa plantations. If it is become dominant, it is very difficult to control. The creeping and climbing habit of M. charantia enables it to cover the cultivated plants.
Distribution : Throughout Indonesia
Ecology : It can be found at  0 m up to 1 300 m  altitude.
Picture :
References :
  1. Kuntohartono, T.  1987.  Pergeseran spesies gulma kebun tebu dan penanggulangannya.  Makalah Temu Lapang Gulma P.G. Cinta Manis: 9-16.
  2. Mangoensoekarjo, S.  1975.  Paria hutan (Momordica charantia L.) rerumputan dominan di perkebunan.  Buletin Balai Penelitian Perkebunan Medan 6 (4): 187-191.
  3. Sasongko, D.  1987.  Gulma merambat di Kebun Tebu.  Makalah Temu Lapang Gulma P.G. Cinta Manis: 17-19.
  4. Siburian, P.H. D. Sunindyo. 1988.  Starane 200 EC as a selective herbicide to control broadleaf and climbing weeds on sugarcane.  Proc. IXth   Indonesian Weed Science Soc. Conf. Vol II: 268-272.
  5. Tjitrosemito, S., T. Kuntohartono and K. Widyatmoko.  1989.  Weed Management in Sugarcane Plantation in Indonesia.  SEAWIC Weedleaflets 5 & 6
  6. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1990.  Momordica charantia L.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, Indonesia.
  7. Widyatmoko, K. and H. Ryanto.  1986.  Weed control in newly opened land.  Proc. VIIIth  Indonesian Weed Science Conf.: 143-151.
 
Species Name : Oxalis barrelieri
Family Name : Oxalidaceae
Genus : Oxalis
Synonym : Oxalis sepium A. St.-Hil. var. picta Prog.
Origin : Tropical S. America
Description : Annual, erect, 10-50 cm tall. Stem branched, sparsely hairy.   Leaves are compound and are found on long stalk, each stalk has 3 leaflets; leaflets oval-oblong, rounded or obtuse, 1.5-3.5 cm x 0.75-2.5 cm; petiole 1.5-3 cm, slightly dilated at base.  Inflorescence in peduncled, once or twice bifurcate cymes with racemiform, 5-16-flowered ultimate axis; pedicels 2-5 mm; petals pale pink or light red, with greenish  yellow-spotted base, 8-9 mm long; the larger stamens with an erect-patent appendage, 8-9 mm long. Fruit 8-10 mm, long look like tiny star-fruits, each capsule when ripe, slit open at a touch and release a reddish seeds.
Invaded Habitat : Around gardens, along roads, in hedges, fields, village groves, along rivers, grassy shaded places, upland rice fields, oil palm plantations.
Distribution : Established in West Java in many places, in Central and East Java locally. Cultivated and naturalized in many tropical countries. In Indonesia: found near Bogor in 1888, occurs nowadays in Sumatra, Java, Bangka and Papua.
Ecology : From 0-1500 m alt.
Picture :
References :
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java  Vol. I.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. de Guzman, C.C. and J.S. Siemonsma (Eds).  1999.  PROSEA. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 13.  Spices.  Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
  3. Kusnanto.  1992. Efisiensi Pengendalian Gulma di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI. Ujung Pandang.
  4. Shiew, F.T. 1995. A Guide to the Wildflowers of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre. Science Centre Road. Singapore 2260.
  5. Soejono, Endang, A. and S. Isniningsih.  1990.  Komunitas Tumbuhan Bawah di antara Tanaman Koleksi Pada Tiga Tingkat Pemeliharaan yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding 1 Konferensi HIGI X. Malang, Indonesia.
  6. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
 
Species Name : Pennisetum polystachyon
Family Name : Poaceae/ Gramineae
Genus : Pennisetum
Synonym :
Origin : Tropical Africa
Description : Tuft grass, erect, simple or branched, 0.50-1.90 m tall, nodes hairless. Stem thin, soft, much banched, tufted in dense stands. Leaves linear up to 60 cm x 5-18 mm, sheath half the node length, base rounded and margin rough. Inflorescence terminal, yellowish brown, spike like panicle, 5-25 cm x 1.3-2.6 cm , composed of sessile unit of 1-4 spikelets; bristles free, unequal, the longest 2-5 cm, the shortest 1 cm, all part feathery, spikelet sessile, solitary, narrowly ovate elliptic, 5 mm long.  Caryopsis ellipsoid, compressed.
Invaded Habitat :  Waste places, road sides, upland rice fields,  rubber and tea  plantations.  It is become troublesome weed when it takes over waste and cultivated lands.
Distribution : P. polystachion  was first observed by scientists from the Bogor Research Institute for Plantations Crops in in plantations at Subang, Purwakarta and Pondok Gede, Bogor in 1972. It is now widely distributed throughout Indonesia.
Ecology :

It is found at altitudes up to  900 m above sea level
The re-growth can occur from dormant buds located at the “basal bulb” area and from the aerial nodes of the stems.The dormant bud bank preserves the weed against drastic cultural and chemical control and against un-favorable climatic conditions.
The seeds are wind-dispersed and have a resilient ability to survive drought and certain cultural and chemical control methods.

Picture :
References :
  1. Kraseasindhu, P., P. Wanicharantakul & C. Harrechote.  1988.  control of Pennisetum setosum with herbicides at different time after cutting in oil palm Plantation.  Proc. 2nd Tropical Weed Conference, Phuket, Thailand
  2. Lee, S.A.  1988.  Weed to watch:  Pennisetum polystachion.  MACA Newsletter vol 1 (2): 11-12.
  3. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  4. Soedarsan, J. and J. Amri.  1975.  Beberapa catatan tentang Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult., sejenis tumbuhan pengganggu di perkebunan.  Menara Perkebunan 43 (2): 105-107.
  5. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  6. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1990.  Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, Indonesia.
 
Species Name : Pennisetum purpureum
Family Name : Poaceae/Graminae
Genus : Pennisetum
Synonym : Pennisetum macrostachyum Benth.
Origin : Tropical Africa
Description : A large perennial; 3.0 m tall or more. Stem tufted, nodes hairless.  Leaves up to 50 cm x 2-3 cm, leaf-blade hairy, rough on margins; ligule a ridge of dense hairs; blade junction with sheath hairy. Flower a long, narrow yellowish and bristly; spikelets narrow and pointed, in groups of 1-3, male spikelets surrounded by a ring of slender bristles, one of which is larger and stouter than the rest; the whole group of the spikelets and bristles fall off together. Seed ellipsoid, compressed.
Invaded Habitat : In open damp situations and waste places; also found in dry land field crops and plantation crops. The aggressive and competitive growth of this grass, it takes over waste-lands and cultivated lands.
Distribution : Throughout Indonesia.
Ecology : This grass spreads mainly by vegetative growth and is found in a wide range of habitats.  Where invasive, it forms dense reeds 3 m tall or more in moist and rich soils, displacing native vegetation and preventing any regeneration of native plants.  The grass persist due to a deep root system.  Seeds are rarely produced.  Established plants are drought and fire tolerant, and vigorously re-sprout if cut.
Picture :
References :
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Barnes D.E. & L. G. Chan. 1990. Common Weeds of Malaysia and their control. Ancom Berhad. Persiaran Selangor. 40000 Shah Alam, Malaysia
  3. Weber, E.  2003.  Invasive Plant Species of the World.  A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds.  CAB International Publishing.  548 pages
 
Species Name : Porophyllum ruderale
Family Name : Asteraceae
Genus : Porophyllum
Synonym : Porophyllum ellipticum Cass.
P. ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. var. ellipticum (Cass.) A. Gray ex B. L. Robinson
Kleinia ruderalis Jacq.
Cacalia ruderalis (Jacq.) Sw.
Origin : Central and South America
Description : Erect, branched, aromatic annual; 0.30-2.00 m high.  Stem entirely or partly reddish violet. Leaves alternate or lower opposite, blue-green, elliptic, narrowed into a  0.5-3 cm long petiole, somewhat fleshy, 1-7 cm (petiole disregarded) x  0.5-2.5 cm.  Heads terminal, solitary or in lax corymbs, peduncled, many-flowered, no ray flowers; c. 30-flowered, 2-2.5 cm x 6-10 mm; peduncle thickened at the top, 2-5 cm long; involucral bracts 5, linear-lanceolate, with membranous margins and dark coloured, linear glands, 1.5-2 cm long; corolla yellowish-green, with brownish violet-tops, 1-1.5 cm long; anthers brownish-violet; achenes minutely hairy, 6-8 mm long; pappus-hairs  white, 7-10 mm long.
Invaded Habitat : Pasture land,  upland rice fields, waste places.
Distribution : Collected for the first time in 1945 near Bogor, West Java and spread to Central and East Java .  It was first collected in South Sumatra at the transmigration areas in 1978, in 1987 it had been reported in Lampung, and now it has spreads to Riau, Jambi, West Sumatra and Bengkulu.
Ecology : Sunny or slightly shaded, prefers fertile soils.
Picture :
References :
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol. II.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  2. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  3. Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S. 1991. The Present Status and Potential of Porophyllum ruderale var. ruderale in Indonesia. Proceed. APWSS. Conference, Jakarta
  4. Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S. 1996. Gulma Anggota Suku Asteraceae di Sumatera. Prosiding  Konferensi HIGI Bandar Lampung.
 
Species Name : Richardia brasiliensis
Family Name : Rubiaceae
Genus : Richardia
Synonym : Richardsonia brasiliensis (Gomez) Hayne
Origin : S. Tropical America
Description : Prostrate herb 10-80 cm tall. Stem cylindrical, short hairy, stipule adnate with the petioles, forming a sheath which is divided into narrow lobes. Leaves opposite, elliptic to obovate, 2.7 cm x 1-3 cm, petioles up to 1 cm. Inflorescence with 6-numerous flowers, white or pink, sessile in apical dense heads, surrounded by pseudo-involucrum of one or two pairs of leaves; calyx tube densely hairy, 2 mm long; corolla tube funnel-shape 3-4 mm long, inside above the base with a ring of hairs; limb spreading, white; lobes 4-6; stamen 4-6, attached to the throat, shorter than the corolla lobes,; ovary inferior, 3-4 celled, stigma 3, exerted. Fruit capsule obconical to ovoid, c.3 mm, falling apart into 3-4-cocci, cocci keeled inside, membranous, warty.
Invaded Habitat : Fields, gardens, tea, cinchona, cotton plantations.
Distribution : Introduced into Java before 1900. In Indonesia: Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan, as far as known.
Ecology : Sunny or lightly shaded, not too dry sites,  up to 2000 m alt.
Picture :
References :
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Ronoprawiro, S. and R. Rogomulyo.  1988.  Pengendalian Kimiawi Gulma Pada Pertanaman Kapas.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  3. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  4. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
 
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